Doctorant : E2C
Université Lyon 1
CNRS, UMR 5023 - LEHNA,
Laboratoire d'Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés
3, rue Raphaël Dubois - Bât. Darwin C
F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex FRANCE
(+33) 04 72 43 11 41
The acceleration of urbanization heavily affects biodiversity through habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation. Populations can respond to these constraints by dispersal, or by adaptive or plastic changes in their biological traits. These responses transform patterns of genetic exchange within species (gene flow) and between them (hybridization) either by fragmenting populations or by bringing into contact species or populations previously separated by their ecology or their phylogeographic history. The main objective of my thesis is to understand how biodiversity is shaped by urbanization patterns through genetic exchange. Three sets of explanatory hypotheses will be explored: (i) the temporal dynamics of cities, (ii) the interactions between global change (urbanization and climate change) and phylogeographic processes and (iii) the plastic or adaptive changes of biological traits. Twenty urban areas with contrasted ages and urbanization patterns will be sampled along a latitudinal gradient from Arles (south) to Langres (north). The biological model is the Tetramorium ant species complex in which different species show different responses to urbanization, from favorable to indifferent to unfavorable. We will analyze molecular markers (mtDNA and nuclear microsatellites) with innovative spatially-explicit methods. We will test the impact of urbanization on the behavioral and morphological performance of individuals. The combined results will provide an integrative and novel vision of the response of biodiversity to urbanization, investigating major topics in ecology and evolutionary biology, as well as in biological conservation.